Key References for XITY Phase 4

“If anywhere can be defined as a city, then the definition runs the risk of meaning nothing. A city is made by its people, within the bounds of the possibilities that it can offer them: it has a distinctive identity that makes it much more than an agglomeration of buildings.”
(Sudjic, p.1)

#1: Le Corbusier, Swiss architect and city planner

In the process of research, it seemed that all roads on researching about the connections between urban planning and its connections to the human body go through the late internationally renowned Swiss architect and city planner Le Corbusier, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (1887 – 1965), widely known as the pioneer of modern architecture.

The Modulor: A Blueprint System

Between 1943 and 1955, Le Corbusier developed the Modulor during a period that was engaging with mathematics as a potential source of universal truths, and he sought to apply a system of proportional measurement to draw together the human anatomy and the beauty embedded in the Golden Section a.k.a. Golden Ratio (See link for a beginner's guide to Golden Section). 

Sourcehttps://modernism101.com/products-page/architecture/le-corbusier-the-modulor-cambridge-ma-harvard-university-press-1954/#.YApZLOgzbD4 

Applying The Modulor to Architecture: Chandigarh, India

Chandigarh, the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier. In this respect, Le Corbusier continued referencing the human body in urban planning. For instance, the administrative government buildings would be placed in the North (head), and the commercial establishments would be marked in the Central regions where the intake and outtake of the city would be concentrated in.

Source: http://chandigarh.gov.in/knowchd_general.htm 

#2: "The Language of Cities" by Deyan Sudjic
Published in 2016 and drawing examples from across the globe, Deyan Sudjic's "The Language of Cities" attempts to decode the underlying logic and forces that shape global cities. 
 
“If anywhere can be defined as a city, then the definition runs the risk of meaning nothing. A city is made by its people, within the bounds of the possibilities that it can offer them: it has a distinctive identity that makes it much more than an agglomeration of buildings.”  
(Sudjic, p.1) 
Sudjic's compact study of multiple cities across the world centers its focus on the relationship between cities and their inhabitants, leaving the team with several key ideas:
(1) Among the many forces that define and continue to shape the growth of cities, what remains crucial are the people and the inhabitants of the city.
(2) It is not sufficient for a city to possess a sound architecture basis (e.g. Le Corbusier's Chandigarh), but crucially requires its inhabitants to animate it and give it life. 
(3) The movement of these inhabitants are primarily determined by sociological factors, leading to various strata of communities existing simultaneously. These may be affected by systemic inequalities or by organic flows of people.
Source: https://www.penguin.co.uk/books/280/280291/the-language-of-cities/9780141980591.html

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